Sign & Digital Graphics

2013 Buyer's Guide

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Grommet—A reinforced metal eyelet found in banners used to receive cords or other fasteners. GTO—A type of insulated wire capable designed to handle the high voltages on the secondary circuits of neon signs. H Halation—A spreading or reflection of light, a halo-like effect, produced by cove lighting or reverse channel letters. Halftone—The process of converting images into dots of various sizes with equal spacing between centers. Halo—A ring of light. Usually refers to the reflection of light achieved by reverse channel letters, which appear to be ringed by light because the light source is reflecting on the background from which the letters are pegged-out. HDPE (High-Density Polyethylene)—A strong, relatively opaque form of polyethylene having a dense structure. HDTV (High Definition TV)—The next generation of video content, capable of almost three times the clarity and resolution of standard NTSC broadcasts. HDU (High-Density Urethane)—A type of hard foam product used in sign production. Urethane has the density and fabrication characteristics of wood, but only one-third of the weight. Head-End—An installation that is the final point from which video feeds for multiple channels are sent to broadcast or cable television customers. In addition to transmitting equipment, a head-end can contain feeds for various channels. Heat Sink—A piece of thermally conductive material attached to a semiconductor or other electronic device (such as an LED), to conduct heat away from the device. Heat Transfer—A type of color imprinting that uses a specially coated paper that is printed in a special printer (often a laser printer) that can be applied to fabric or other substrates using a heat press. Not to be confused with sublimation or lamination. Hertz (Hz)—In electronics, a measurement of signal frequency. Hertz are referred to in a computer's CPU speed, or a monitor's refresh rate. The CPUs in personal computers recently passed from being measured in megahertz (MHz) to being measured in gigahertz (GHz). Monitor refresh rates are most frequently measured in kilohertz (KHz). Hexachrome—Color matching system created by Pantone Inc. for combining six colors to create a larger reproducible color gamut. HSL (Hue, Saturation and Luminance)—A huebased  color space model that defines color using a double hexcone. This definition is often expressed geometrically as an inverted cone and double cone. HSV (Hue, Saturation and Value)—A color model that refers to a color space or color definition.  Hue involves wavelength; saturation  is the percentage of white with zero-percent noting pure color; and value is the brightness, with zero-percent representing solid black. HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)—The programming language used to create Web pages for display in Web browsers. HTML can be created directly with text editors or Web publishing programs, such as DreamWeaver, or it can be the output of other programs that make dynamic Web pages on the fly. When you select "view source" from your Web browser, the code that you are viewing is HTML. Hi-Fi Color—Any process—such as stochastic screening or six-color printing—that expands the possible color gamut beyond four-color process. Hue—The property of color that indicates the color name, such as purple, blue, or green, that can be specified by particular wavelengths or by CIE coordinates. It ranges from 0-360, but is normalized to 0-100% in some applications. Highlight White—Printing application in which white ink is used to enhance an image, sharpen colors or add contrast. I Hinging—Vinyl installation process where a cut vinyl image, the carrier liner and the transfer tape are placed on the target surface; a piece of masking tape is then attached to the top edge of the transfer tape. The liner is then slowly rolled off from the top edge, and the transfer tape and vinyl image are slowly smoothed onto the surface. A variation of this is to leave an exposed strip of transfer tape above the top edge of the liner, instead of a separate piece of masking tape, to act as the hinge. ICC (International Color Consortium)—A group of industry vendors (formed in 1993) whose goal is to create a standardized color management system that functions transparently across all operating systems and software packages. ICC Profile—A standardized description of the color attributes of a particular substrate, ink, digital printer or imaging device which was set by the ICC. A profile is created by defining a map between the source and target color space using a profile connection space, either a L*a*b* or CIE color space. Header—A separate board above the rest of a sign that gives it a headline or contains a different advertising message for the same product. Most often seen with point-of-purchase advertising. Histogram—Graph showing the number of pixels showing up at different brightness levels of an image. Image Processing—Enhancing and manipulating an image, such as by adjusting its size, resolution, or color palette. Heartbeat—In an electronic digital signage  network, a brief status message sent to the network manager machine at regular intervals by a running media player, for health monitoring purposes. Housing—For  neon tubing, made from porcelain or Pyrex glass, a housing mounted in the sign that provides the contact between the electrode and the lead-in wire. Inflatables—Plastic signage that assumes a three-dimensional shape when filled with air under pressure or helium gas. Heat-activated Adhesive—A type of adhesive used on some film laminates that is not sticky at room temperature but softens when heated, thus activating the adhesive. HSB (Hue, Saturation and Brightness)—a huebased color space model that is widely used to select colors within image editing and other graphics applications. This definition is often expressed geometrically as an inverted cone and double cone. Heat Bending—The process of heating PVC boards and then bending them to desired shapes. Initiation—In  UV-curing ink chemistry, the beginning of the cascading effect or chain reaction caused by the photoinitiator as it combines with a double bond (free radical UV curing), or as it opens the epoxide ring (cationic UV curing) of the monomer, to ultimately change the liquid monomer to a solid (polymer) state. S I G N & D I G I TA L G R A P H I C S • SBGuide.indd 109 Mid-June 2013 • 109 5/31/13 12:36 PM

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