Sign & Digital Graphics

2013 Buyer's Guide

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Terms of the Trade Vacuum Gauge—Measures the degree of vacuum in a neon manifold by measuring residual gas pressure. Vacuum Table—Surface where hold-down of a  substrate for printing, routing or engraving is done by air suction, as opposed to clamping or using a T-slot table. Suction is usually provided by a vacuum pump. Value—When dealing with color, value is the measurement of brightness, with zero percent representing solid black. Value Engineering—Assessing a sign based on the cost of its materials, design, installation and maintenance, with the goal of getting the best value for the money. Vanishing Point—In graphic design, the place where a series of angled lines continue but are too small to be detected by the unaided eye. The lines converge into one point and seem to disappear, creating a 3D relief effect. Variable Droplet Technology—Printhead  design where individual nozzles use multiple micro-pulses to create different sized ink droplets from the same aperture. For example, a nozzle with a native drop size of 12 pl can also produce drops of 24, 36, 48 or 60 pl depending on the number of micro-pulses used. Printheads using this technology can achieve high resolution images at higher speeds. Variance—A method where a government body deviates from the terms of its sign or zoning code. Typically, obtaining a variance for a sign requires the applicant to show that it would not be contrary to the public interest or where—owing to conditions peculiar to the property—a literal enforcement of the regulations would result in unnecessary and undue hardship. Vector—In cut-vinyl sign making, a line segment between two coordinates, on which a knife or tool path can be created for plotting or routing. Also, a line that has a specific direction and length that's proportional to some representative unit value. Vector Image—A computer image that defines graphic  pixels through the use of mathematical descriptions of paths and files. Vectorization—Function of tracing around a bitmap image to create an outline comprised of line segments, or vectors. Also called auto-tracing. Versionation—the process of inserting a serial number into a file name or folder name to indicate the order in which successively newer versions of a 120 • Mid-June 2013 • S I G N SBGuide.indd 120 file with the same base name have been received on the media player. Vinyl—The most common form of plastic in use today. See PVC. Vinyl Welding—The bonding of various thermoplastics including PVC, polyester, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyurethane. Typically the coating of the material is melted to create a welded bond. Common types of vinyl welders include: hot air, hot wedge, impulse, and high-frequency or RF (radio frequency). Viscosity—The thickness of a paint or ink. Specifically, the resistance of adjacent levels of a fluid ink to flow under pressure and or shearing forces. High viscosity represents high resistance (thick, heavy ink); low viscosity represents low resistance (thinner, free-flowing ink) VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds)—Petroleum-based chemical compounds with high vapor pressure and low water solubility (evaporate easily). Commonly found in industrial solvents, including those used as carriers in solvent-based inks. VOCs are considered toxic, and airborne VOCs are federally regulated in some industries. Volt/Voltage—A unit used to measure electrical potential (force or pressure). VRAM (Video Random Access Memory)—Storage chips in a computer that are devoted exclusively to the display of images on a monitor screen. Increased VRAM allows displays to redraw or refresh an image at a higher speed. W Walldog—Slang term for old-style sign painters who produce signs, murals and other large graphics by hand, by painting directly onto a blank exterior wall section. See also Letterheads. Wall Mount—A single-face sign mounted on a wall. Another name for a wall sign. Washout—The process of opening up the image areas of a screen after a photostencil has been exposed. Waste Heat—Electrical energy that is converted to heat as part of the power conversion and regulation process that must be dissipated. Wayfinding—A system of signage and graphics which is designed to give direction to a given destination. While the copy and graphics on a building's signs are important to the process, wayfinding also depends on the information inherent in a building's design. Weed—In cut-vinyl sign making, the process of peeling extraneous vinyl (or matrix) away from a plotter cut, leaving only the sections representing the final image. Pulling the extra vinyl away in one quick stroke is known as rip-weeding. Weld—Combination and merging of two outlines to create one image. Depending on the software, the final outline may be altered in a variety of ways. White Point—The lightest tone in an image that is printable. Tones lighter than the white point print as white. The opposite of shadow point. X X Axis—Theoretical horizontal line providing a lengthwise reference point for plotters and routers. X Height—In typography, a given typeface, the height of the lowercase letters that do not have an ascender or a descender. Y Y Axis—Theoretical vertical line providing a longitudinal reference point for plotters and routers. YCC—Color space developed by Eastman Kodak that defines colors by luminance (Y) and two levels of chrominance (C and C). Z Z Axis—Theoretical line providing a depth reference point for routers. Zip/Zip File—To reduce file size by using file compression algorithm programs such as PKZIP, WinZIP or StuffIt; a zip file is any file compressed using zip software. Zoom—Making an image or image part become larger (zooming in) or smaller (zooming out) as it appears on the monitor. A lens that changes magnification. SDG Water Jet Cutter—A tool that utilizes a high velocity and high pressure jet of water, sometimes in combination with an abrasive, to make close-tolerance cuts in various hard materials such as stainless steel. & D I G I TA L G R A P H I C S 5/31/13 12:38 PM

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