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2022 Midwest Vegetable Guide

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Leafy Vegetables and Herbs (Non-Brassica) – Diseases 180 Midwest Veg Guide 2022 Harvesting can be done throughout the year. Cut about 4-inch pieces from the tips of the branches, being careful not to remove more than 20 percent of the growth at one time. Spinach Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is a nutritious leafy green made popular as a canned product by the cartoon 'Popeye the Sailor Man.' Currently it is more commonly eaten raw as a salad green. Common problems are white rust, flea beetles, and bolting. In the Midwest, spinach is commonly seeded in late summer or fall, and grown through the winter under row cover or in hoophouses. Late winter and early spring plantings are also successful. Direct seed or transplant in rows 12 to 18 inches apart, with 2 to 6 plants per foot of row. Or for baby leaf spinach seed in bands 2 to 4 inches wide with about 40 seeds per foot. Seed 12 to 20 pounds per acre. Plants bolt in response to increasing daylength so overwintered and spring crops are usually finished by late spring. Harvest spinach with sequential cuttings when leaves are 4 to 6 inches long, or desired length for your market. Depending on the time of year, they will be ready for another harvest in 4 to 6 weeks. Or do a once-over harvest when plants reach full size. Thyme Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is native to the western Mediterranean region. It is a small, many-branched, and perennial shrub. Thyme tastes delicately green with a faint clover aftertaste. It ranks as one of the finest herbs of French cuisine. Thyme leaves and sprigs are used in clam chowder, meats, herbal butter, and vinegar. Use it with vegetables, cheese, eggs, and rice. The pest and disease problems include spider mites and root rot. Start seeds indoors and transplant seedlings into the field once the danger of frost is over. Thyme reaches a height of 12 inches and a width of 10 to 12 inches. Thyme can be propagated from cuttings, by layering, and division. Harvest the entire plant by cutting it back to 2 inches above ground in midsummer. One more harvest can be expected before the season ends. Fertilizing pH: Maintain a soil pH of 6.5 to 6.8 for leafy greens, and 6.0 to 7.0 for herbs. On muck soils maintain the pH at 5.5 to 6.0. Spinach is particularly sensitive to soil acidity. Before planting apply 40 to 60 pounds N per acre, 0 to 150 pounds P 2 O 5 per acre, and 0 to 200 pounds K 2 O per acre. Adjust according to soil type, previous management, and soil test results for your state. For direct-seeded crops band an additional 40 pounds N and 40 pounds P 2 O 5 per acre 2 inches to the side and 2 inches below the seed. Sidedress with 30 to 60 pounds N per acre three to four weeks after thinning or transplanting, and again after each cutting. Reduce the total amount of fertilizer N applied by the value of N credits from green manures, legume crops grown in the previous year, compost and animal manures, and soils with more than 3 percent organic matter. The total amount of N from fertilizer (including starter) and other credits should be 90 to 120 pounds N per acre for culinary herbs, up to 140 pounds N per acre for lettuce, and up to 170 pounds N per acre for spinach. For herbs grown for seeds, such as coriander, fennel, and dill, use 60 to 90 pounds N per acre. Leafy Vegetables and Herbs (Non-Brassica) – Diseases Reviewed by Dan Egel – Sept 2021 Recommended Controls Aster Yellows (Purple-Top Wilt) of Multiple Crops - Phytoplasma Mollicutes This pathogen is transmitted by leafhoppers. Infection rates can jump when adjacent crops are harvested mid-season, such as alfalfa or wheat. Pesticide Insecticides Head Lettuce, Leaf Lettuce | Use an insecticide to control leafhoppers that transmit the disease. Leafhoppers must be controlled before they feed. See Insect section. Bottom Rot of Lettuce - Rhizoctonia Fungus Non-Pesticide Chicory, Endive, Escarole, Head Lettuce, Leaf Lettuce, Radicchio | Clean and sanitize transplant trays, benches, and tools. Rogue infected transplants. Avoid working field under wet conditions. Prompt destruction of the finished crop with tillage to rapidly breakdown tissue is an important method to prevent disease build-up. Pesticide azoxystrobin products (azoxystrobin) Head Lettuce, Leaf Lettuce | 0.4-0.8 fl. oz. per 1000 row feet. REI: 4-hour. PHI: 0-day. FRAC 11.

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