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2022 Midwest Vegetable Guide

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Legumes – Horticulture 196 Midwest Veg Guide 2022 Legumes – Horticulture Major update by Ben Phillips, Liz Maynard – Oct 2020 Reviewed by Liz Maynard – Aug 2021 Crop Description Fresh or Snap Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): These are edible podded beans that are usually green (green beans) or yellow (wax beans), but they also come in red and purple podded varieties as well. They are harvested while pods and seeds are still tender. Older varieties (string beans) had a fibrous "string" the length of the pod that was removed during preparation for eating. Flat-podded Romano beans are also harvested while pods and seeds are tender. Within this category are "vining", "pole", or "runner" beans that need trellising, and "bush" beans that are short and sturdy. Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): Dry bean refers to a wide variety of beans harvested after the seeds are mature and pods have dried down. Kidney, navy, black turtle, white, and pinto beans are examples. Within this category are "vining", "pole", or "runner" beans that need trellising, and "bush" beans that are short and sturdy. Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus): Lima beans represent a different species than fresh beans and dry beans. They can be harvested when completely dry (like dry beans) or as "baby limas" before the seed has matured (similar to the southern pea described below). Some lima bean varieties will readily climb a trellis, but other varieties are more bush-like. Fresh Pea (Pisum sativum): These peas are cool-season crops grown for their immature edible seeds or pods. Snow peas have flattened, tender, edible pods and seeds. Snap peas have edible pods and plump seeds. Shell peas have pods that are too tough to eat and the peas must be removed for eating. Some pea varieties will readily climb a trellis, but other varieties have a sprawling bush-like architecture. Dry Pea (Pisum sativum): These peas are cool-season crops grown for their mature edible seeds, like dry beans. Dry pea varieties are bush-like to facilitate machine harvest. Southern Pea, Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata): These peas are heat-loving crops more commonly grown in southern states, though they can be grown in the north. They include black- eyed peas, cream peas and crowder peas. They are grown for their immature and dried shelled seeds, and are well-accepted in markets where customers are familiar with them. Southern peas have a sprawling bush-like architecture. Planting and Spacing Fresh or Snap Bean, Dry Bean, Lima Bean, Southern Pea: Rows 18 to 36 inches apart, 5 to 7 seeds per foot of row for bush types (70 to 100 pounds per acre), or 2 to 3 seeds per foot of row for vining types (35 to 50 pounds per acre). Larger inter-row spacing helps limit white mold development. These warm-season vegetables should be sown after soil temperatures average 60° F and frost danger is past. Sequential plantings of bush snap beans are possible. Vining types will readily climb a trellis of horticultural netting up to 8 feet tall without much training. Fresh Pea and Dry Pea: Rows 32 to 36 inches apart, 6 to 8 seeds per foot of row for bush types (100 to 150 pounds per acre), or 3 to 4 seeds per foot of rows for vining types (50 to 75 pounds per acre). These cool-season vegetables should be sown in early spring for a spring crop or in mid to late summer for a fall crop. Plants deteriorate quickly in the heat of summer. Vining types will readily climb a trellis of horticultural netting up to 5 feet tall without much training. Fertilizing pH: Maintain a soil pH of 6.0 to 6.5. Before planting, apply 20 to 40 pounds N per acre for peas and 30 to 60 pounds N per acre for beans, 0 to 100 pounds P 2 O 5 per acre, and 0 to 100 pounds K 2 O per acre based on soil test results and recommendations from your state. Or apply some or all of that amount at planting in bands at least 2 inches below and 2 inches to the side of the row, except the rate of K 2 O should not exceed 40 pounds per acre when applied this way because peas and beans are sensitive to injury from fertilizer salts. Reduce the preplant fertilizer by the amount applied in bands at planting. Beans are prone to zinc and manganese deficiency when pH is over 6.5. Include up to 1 pound of zinc per acre and 2 pounds of manganese per acre in the banded planting time fertilizer. If banding is not possible zinc may be broadcast up to 10 pounds of zinc per acre. Broadcasting manganese is not recommended. Foliar sprays of 0.5 pounds zinc per acre or 1 to 2 pounds manganese per acre can be used if needed. Sidedressing is not needed for legume crops. Reduce the amount of fertilizer N applied by the value of N credits from green manures, legume crops grown in the previous year, compost and animal manures, and soils with more than 3 percent organic matter. The total amount of N from fertilizer (including starter) and other credits should be 40 to 60 pounds per acre.

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