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2022 Midwest Vegetable Guide

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Onions and Related Crops – Horticulture 220 Poast (1.5EC) (sethoxydim) POST | 1.0-1.5 pts. per acre. Use 1.0 qt. of COC per acre. Spray on actively growing grass. Use high rate on quackgrass. Do not exceed 5.5 pts. per acre per season. REI: 12-hour. PHI: 14-day. HRAC 01. Sandea (75) (halosulfuron) POST PRE | 0.5-1.0 oz. per acre. Apply between rows of transplanted crop. Use lower rates on coarse soils with low organic matter. Add 0.5-1.0 pt. of NIS per 25 gals. of spray solution if emerged weeds are present. Avoid contact of the herbicide with the crop. Avoid contact with surface of plastic mulch if present. Effective against nutsedge. Do not exceed 2 oz. per acre per 12-month period. REI: 12-hour. PHI: 30-day. HRAC 02. trifluralin products (trifluralin) PRE | 0.5-1.0 lb. a.i. per acre. Use 4EC formulations at 1-2 pts. per acre. Use 10G formulations at 5-10 lbs. per acre. Use low rate on soils with less than 2% organic matter. Broadcast and incorporate before transplanting. Not effective on muck or high organic matter soils. REI: 12-hour. HRAC 03. Onions and Related Crops – Horticulture Major update by Ben Phillips, Liz Maynard – Oct 2020 Reviewed by Liz Maynard – Aug 2021 Crop Description Garlic (Allium sativum): There are two main types of garlic: softneck and hardneck. Hardneck types overwinter better in the Midwest, have a stronger flavor, and are easier to peel. Softneck types have a longer shelf-life, milder flavor, and smaller cloves. Elephant or great headed garlic (A. ampeloprasum) is grown like other garlic, but has a milder flavor. Leek (A. porrum): Leeks do not bulb, but form a straight shank of layered leaves that stay white when buried with soil. They can be planted deeply and hilled to increase the length of the shank. There are nonhardy summer-harvested varieties and frost-tolerant fall-harvest varieties. Onion (A. cepa var. cepa): Bulb onions include yellow, red, and white-skinned types, and within each of the colors, there are sweet varieties and pungent storage varieties. Bulb onions are categorized as long-day, intermediate-day, or short-day based on the day-length that stimulates bulbing. Long-day varieties grow best in the Midwest. Some intermediate-day onions can also do well in the Midwest. Sweet onions contain more sugar, and do not keep as well as pungent storage onions. Any onion variety can also be used as a green onion, but A. fistulosum is a species that is commonly used for bunching that does not make a large bulb. Shallot (A. cepa var. aggregatum or A. ascalonicum): Shallots form clusters of bulbs and are very winter hardy, like garlic. The torpedo-shaped bulbs are smaller than onions and have a milder flavor. Planting and Spacing Garlic: Plant in fall 6 to 8 weeks before ground freezes in rows 12 to 36 inches apart with cloves 3 to 6 inches apart in the row. Plant bulbs 3 to 4 inches deep, with top of clove twice the depth of the clove height. Garlic benefits from 2 to 4 inches of straw mulch applied over winter, which can be left on the rows until harvest. For mechanical cultivation, plant flat side of clove perpendicular to the length of the row; for hand cultivation in dense plantings, plant angled side of clove parallel to the length of the row. Remove flower stalks for maximum yield. Leek: Seed or transplant outdoors about a month before the frost-free date in rows 14 to 18 inches apart with plants 3 to 4 inches apart in the row. Transplants can be started 10 to 15 weeks before planting. Place transplants 4 to 8 inches deep and backfill soil, or hill throughout the season to maintain a long white shank. Onion: Seed or transplant outdoors about a month before the frost-free date, or as early as soil can be worked on raised beds with two double rows or wide rows spaced 14 inches apart on top of the bed with 12 seeds per foot, or 3 to 4 transplants per foot. A popular transplanting method on farms that are hand-weeded is to plant onions in groups of four that grow up and out as a clover shape. Transplants may also be planted into plastic-much covered beds. When seeding, use 4 pounds per acre of onion seed and consider broadcasting 1 bushel of oats or barley per acre overtop as a nurse crop that can protect young onions from sandblasting and hard frosts. Kill the barley or oats when they are 5 to 6 inches tall with a graminicide. Young onions can withstand several overnight lows in the 23° F to 32° F range, but survivability is less if it is also windy. Shallots: Seed in the spring like onions with similar row spacing, or transplant bulbs in the fall like garlic with similar row spacings. However, if fall planted, remove mulch in the spring before emergence. Shallot leaves are hollow and are easy to bend and crimp by the movement of straw mulch once they emerge. Transplanting young plants from a greenhouse in the early spring will yield bulbs along the same timeline as garlic. Midwest Veg Guide 2022

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