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2022 Midwest Vegetable Guide

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Transplant Production 26 Midwest Veg Guide 2022 use is not prohibited. Apply according to labeled rates and timing. Products that may be used in the greenhouse are listed in Sanitizers Table. Seed Treatments Seed treatments are useful for preventing damping-off and some other root diseases in vegetable crops. Seed treatments can also eliminate certain pathogens carried in or on the seed. There are two general types of seed treatment: eradicative and protective. Eradicative seed treatments kill disease-causing agents on or within seed and are useful in controlling certain seedborne diseases. Protective seed treatments are applied to the seed surface and protect the seed against decay and damping-off caused by soilborne organisms. For more information, see Hot Water and Chlorine Treatment of Vegetable Seeds to Eradicate Bacterial Plant Pathogens, Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet HYG-3085-05, ohioline.osu.edu . Hot Water Treatment When properly used, hot water treatments kill most disease- causing organisms on or within seed. This treatment is suggested for eggplant, pepper, tomato, cucumber, carrot, spinach, lettuce, celery, cabbage, turnip, radish, and other crucifer seed. Improper treatment can injure seed. Hot-water treatment can severely damage cucurbit seed. Prewarm seed in a loosely woven cotton bag (not over half full) for 10 minutes in 100°F water. Then, place the prewarmed seed in a water bath that will constantly hold the water at the recommended sterilizing temperature (see Water Bath Temperatures and Treatment Lengths below). The length of treatment and temperature of the water must be exact. After treatment, dip bags in cold water to stop heating action, and then spread seed out to dry. Always apply a protective seed treatment fungicide to hot-water-treated seed. This treatment can injure old seed. Always test a small sample of any seed lot more than a year old by treating it, and testing for germination to determine the amount of injury, if any, that might occur. Water Bath Temperatures and Treatment Lengths The water bath temperatures and treatment lengths should be followed exactly. Seed Temperature (°F) Minutes Brussels sprouts, cabbage, eggplant, spinach, tomato 122 25 Broccoli, cauliflower, cucumber, carrot, collard, kale, kohlrabi, rutabaga, turnip 122 20 Mustard, cress, radish 122 15 Pepper 125 30 Lettuce, celery, celeriac 118 30 Chlorine Treatment Chlorine treatment effectively removes bacterial and fungal pathogens on the seed surface. Chlorine treatment is recommended for pepper, tomato, cucurbits, and other vegetables if the seeds have not been treated by another method. Agitate seeds in a solution of 1 quart of household bleach, 4 quarts of water, and 1 teaspoon of surfactant for 1 minute. Use 1 gallon of this disinfectant solution per pound of seed and prepare a fresh solution for each batch. After placing seed in this solution, remove, and rinse thoroughly in running tap water for five minutes. After that, spread out seed to dry. Dust the seed with Thiram 75WP at 1 teaspoon per pound of seed. Treat the seed near planting time, as viability may be reduced over time. Before you treat all seed, we recommend that you test a small sample of each seed lot first. Treat 50-100 seeds and see how they germinate. If they germinate well, treat the rest of the seed lot. If you treat coated seed or seed treated with fungicide with hot water or bleach, always dispose of wastewater in an environmentally sound manner. For more information, see Hot Water and Chlorine Treatment of Vegetable Seeds to Eradicate Bacterial Plant Pathogens, Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet HYG-3085-05, ohioline.osu.edu . Fungicide Seed Treatment Thiram is the most common seed-protectant fungicide. Other fungicides are recommended for specific crops. These fungicides are often combined with insecticides, and these combinations may be superior to fungicide treatment alone. Purchase treated seed, or dust seed lightly with fungicide according to label directions. Do not use treated seed for food or feed.

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