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2022 Midwest Vegetable Guide

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Field Production Information Midwest Veg Guide 2022 27 Field Production Information Major Update by Liz Maynard and Ben Phillips – Sept 2021 Vegetable Classifications EPA Vegetable Crop Groups EPA Crop Group Crop Group 1 (Root and Tuber Vegetables) Beet, Carrot, Celeriac, Horseradish, Parsnip, Potato, Radish, Rutabaga, Sweet Potato, Turnip Group 3 (Bulb Vegetables) Garlic, Leek, Onion, Shallot Group 4 (Leafy Greens and Leafy Petioles) Arugula, Asparagus, Chicory, Chives, Celery, Cress, Endive, Escarole, Florence Fennel, Lettuce, Mizuna, Parsley, Radicchio, Rhubarb, Spinach, Swiss Chard Group 5 (Cole Crops and Brassica Leafy Greens) Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Kale, Kohlrabi, Mustard Greens, Turnip Greens Group 6 (Legume Vegetables) Beans, Peas, Southern Peas/Cowpeas, Lima Beans Group 8 (Fruiting Vegetables) Eggplant, Pepper, Okra, Tomato Group 9 (Cucurbit Vegetables) Cantaloupe/Muskmelon, Cucumber, Pumpkin, Squash, Watermelon Group 15 (Cereal Grains) Sweet Corn Group 19 (Herbs and Spices) Basil, Cilantro, Coriander, Dill, Fennel, Florence Fennel, Lavender, Marjoram, Oregano, Parsley, Rosemary, Sage, Savory, Tarragon, Thyme Botanically Related Vegetables Plant Family Crops Amaranthaceae Beet, Spinach, Swiss Chard Amaryllidaceae Chives, Garlic, Leek, Onion, Shallot Apiaceae Carrot, Celeriac, Celery, Cilantro, Coriander, Dill, Fennel, Florence Fennel, Parsley, Parsnip Asparagaceae Asparagus Asteraceae Chicory, Endive, Escarole, Lettuce, Radicchio, Tarragon Brassicaceae Arugula, Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Cress, Horseradish, Kale, Kohlrabi, Mustard Greens, Mizuna, Radish, Rutabaga, Turnip, Turnip Greens Convolvulaveae Sweet Potato Cucurbitaceae Cantaloupe/Muskmelon, Cucumber, Pumpkin, Squash, Watermelon Fabaceae Beans, Peas, Southern Peas/Cowpeas, Lima Beans Lamiaceae Basil, Lavender, Marjoram, Oregano, Rosemary, Sage, Savory, Thyme Malvaeae Okra Poaceae Sweet Corn Polygonaceae Rhubarb Solanaceae Eggplant, Pepper, Potato, Tomato Temperature Tolerances of Selected Vegetables Warm-season Cool-season Very Tender Tender Semi-Hardy Hardy 1 Cantaloupe, Cucumber, Eggplant, Lima Bean, Okra, Pepper, Pumpkin, Squash, Watermelon Snap Bean, Sweet Corn, Tomato Carrot, Cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, Lettuce, Potato Asparagus, Broccoli, Cabbage Horseradish, Onion, Pea, Spinach 1 Hardy crops are most tolerant of cool temperatures and frost. Very tender crops are most susceptible to frost and cool temperatures. Using Plastic Mulch Black plastic mulch laid before planting helps control weeds, reduce root pruning, and give profitable increases in early yields of warm-season crops. Wavelength- selective and clear mulches typically lead to greater early yields than black plastic, but weed growth under these mulches may be a problem. This is particularly true for clear mulch. Because leaching is retarded, less fertilizer is lost, and nitrogen sidedressing is often unnecessary with the plastic mulch. If nitrogen needs to be added, it can be applied later through the irrigation system. Try to lay plastic mulches as early in the season as possible. Mulches should be laid as soon as the ground can be worked after a heavy rain. Irrigate the field if soil moisture is not adequate prior to laying the mulch. Plastic mulches should be laid over moist soil. If the plastic is laid over dry soil, it will actually delay subsequent transplant growth. It is better to lay out plastic at midday so it can be stretched tight. However, do not overstretch the plastic because cool nights may actually cause it to tear. The seedbed should be as fine as possible in order to get a good covering. The plastic is laid by burying about 6 inches of each edge. Black plastic mulch is most effective in warming the soil when it is in direct contact with the soil. A disadvantage of plastic mulch is disposal at the end of the season. Many landfills do not accept plastic mulches. Photodegradable plastic mulches, which degrade into small pieces of plastic that remain in the environment, are available. Biodegradable plastic mulches that break down completely are also available. Fully biodegradable mulches are currently more expensive, but do not need to be removed and disposed of at the end of the season, and do not leave long-lasting contamination in the environment. For more information on biodegradable mulches, see information from a nationally funded project at .

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