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2022 Midwest Vegetable Guide

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Organic Vegetable Production 32 Midwest Veg Guide 2022 associated with sublethal effects on development, foraging behavior, immune system functionality, learning and memory retention, longevity, orientation, overwintering survival, and reproduction. In addition, indirect effects may be affiliated with social interactions as a result of honey bees sharing a contaminated food source. In general, early morning or late evening applications of pesticides pose less of a hazard because this is when most bees are less active. However, this depends on temperature, as bumble bees are active at lower temperatures (40°F) whereas honey bees are active when temperatures are >50°F. Do not apply pesticides to flowering plants or weeds. Systemic insecticides, applied as either drenches or granules, to the soil or growing medium, are less harmful to bees than foliar applications. The pesticide formulation can influence bee toxicity. For example, emulsifiable concentrates (EC) and water-soluble (WS) formulations are typically less harmful to bees than wettable powder (WP) formulations. It is important to note that some fungicides can enhance the toxicity of certain insecticides to honey bees when mixed together. This enhanced toxicity is referred to as synergism, which means that the combined toxicity is greater than the sum of the toxicity of each pesticide applied separately. The ergosterol or sterol biosynthesis inhibiting (EBI) class of fungicides have been shown to increase the toxicity of certain insecticides in various chemical classes, including: organophosphates, pyrethroids, and neonicotinoids to honey bees. For instance, the toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to honey bees is enhanced over a thousand fold when mixed with ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors. In addition, mixing some neonicotinoid insecticides with certain fungicides can enhance toxicity to honey bees as much as a thousandfold. In addition to fungicides, insect growth regulators, which are insecticides that disrupt insect growth and development, and eventually lead to death, are known to be harmful to honey bees. The three categories of insect growth regulators — chitin synthesis inhibitors, juvenile hormone mimics, and ecdysone receptor antagonists/ agonists —have been reported to be directly and/or indirectly harmful to honey bees; especially the larvae (brood). The Fungicide Table and Insecticide Table contains Bee Precaution information based on the toxicity of oral exposure to honey bees, honey bee brood, and other bees. It is important to read the pesticide label carefully to determine the potential level of toxicity to all bee types (honey bees, bumble bees, and native bees). Furthermore, you can incorporate into pollination contracts a list of pesticides, application methods, and timing of applications that are mutually agreeable to both growers/producers and beekeepers. These tables utilize the University of California IPM Bee precaution pesticide ratings; a systematic review of toxicity data for most crop management chemistries found at www2.ipm.ucanr.edu/beeprecaution . State laws may require that applicators notify beekeepers 24 hours before applying a pesticide that is directly or indirectly harmful to honey bees when; 1) the treated crop is in flower (blooming), and 2) the field is greater than a half-acre and within a half-a-mile from a registered apiary. It is important to contact your state department of agriculture to determine if there are laws or regulations that protect other pollinators (bumble bees and native bees). For more information on bees and pesticides, refer to the extension publication, Pesticides and Bees (Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. MF3428. Kansas State University; Manhattan, KS. 8 pgs, bookstore.ksre.ksu.edu ). Organic Vegetable Production Reviewed by Liz Maynard – Aug 2021 Organic vegetable farming is a production system that relies on biological processes and natural materials to manage soil fertility and pest populations, and to promote healthy crop growth. The federal Organic Foods Production Act regulates the use of the term "organic" to describe an agricultural product in the marketplace. Vegetables sold as "organic" must be grown and handled according to the National Organic Rule and any applicable state regulations. The National Organic Rule prohibits the use of most synthetic chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides, etc.), and requires farmers to write and follow organic production plans, as well as keep farm and field records. Fields used to grow organic crops may not have had any prohibited material applied to them in the previous three years. In addition, USDA-accredited organic certification agents must inspect and certify all operations with more than $5,000 in gross annual sales of products labeled "organic." Growers interested in transitioning to organic production should educate themselves about practices used in their area and plan carefully. Experience suggests that it can take a number of years for pest populations and soil nutrient cycles to adjust enough for successful organic production. This guide includes recommendations for some inputs that are permitted in organic production, but also for many that are not. The note 'OMRI-listed' indicates pesticides that have been listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) as approved for use in organic production in the U.S. Growers should always check with their organic certification agents before using any product to make sure it meets their certifier's criteria. Other organic production resources include: eOrganic, the Organic Agriculture Community of the Extension Foundation eorganic.org Organic Vegetable Gardening Techniques (University of Missouri Extension Guide G6220) provides an introduction

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