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2022 Midwest Vegetable Guide

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Pesticide Application and Safety Midwest Veg Guide 2022 41 Worker Protection Standard All pesticides with an "Agricultural Use Requirements" box on the label are subject to the regulations of the Worker Protection Standard (WPS). The WPS requires all employers to provide annual pesticide safety training to employees in a language that employees understand. Training must be approved by the Environmental Protection Agency. The Pesticide Educational Resources Collaborative (PERC) has a library of free EPA-approved training materials available in multiple languages on its website, including videos and flip charts. Restricted Pesticides Most states have laws that restrict the use of certain pesticides and that describe where such pesticides can be obtained and used. Only individuals who are licensed by the state can apply restricted use pesticides. Some restricted pesticides require applicators to notify occupants of land within 1,000 feet of the area to be treated at least 24 hours before application. Occupants also must be notified of any precautions they must take to ensure the safety of livestock and humans. The U.S. EPA, state regulatory agencies, or pesticide companies can label specific pesticide formulations as "Restricted Use Only." To learn more about your state's laws about restricted use pesticides, contact your state department of agriculture or local extension office. Calibrating Application Equipment It is essential to apply pesticides at the specified rates for best control and protection and to not exceed residue tolerance. Calibrate and check sprayers carefully several times a season for accurate delivery rates. Ensure equipment is clean and functional, and replace broken parts prior to calibration. Spreaders Some granular spreaders are gravimetric and ground-driven, meaning that a constant rate of granules are delivered by gravity out of a feed gate, and a wheel running along the ground is attached to gears and chains that drive the rotor that displaces a fixed amount of granules per revolution. This locks the spreading rate to ground speed, as long as the feed gate is set at a consistent opening. If the feed gate opening remains the same, then changing ground speed will not affect output. However, doubling the rate of granules released from the feed gate with a larger opening will double the output, and halving the rate of granules released from the feed gate with a smaller opening will halve the output. Some granular spreaders have a metering unit that is independent from ground speed, and is run hydraulically, electrically, or through a hand crank or the tractor PTO. If the meter rate remains constant, then halving ground speed will double output, and doubling ground speed will halve output. If ground speed remains constant, then doubling meter rate will double output, and halving meter rate will halve output. Rotary spreaders fling the material in a fan-like pattern to either side of the spreader, drop spreaders release material in a sheet-like pattern straight down directly over the footprint of the spreader, and band spreaders meter out granules along a row. Here are suggested steps to calibrating selected spreaders. Granular Rotary Spreader Calibration 1. Set applicator dial or dials to give desired delivery rate of granules suggested for spreading according to manufacturer's instructions. 2. Fill hopper with granules to be used. 3. Lay out a tarp that is smaller than the spread pattern. Travel across tarp at desired speed and collect granules off of the tarp into a bag, bucket, or other container. 4. Weigh granules, and multiply by fraction of an acre that the tarp represents to find delivery per acre. For example: granular rotary spreader that leaves 0.25 lb. on a 20 sq. ft. tarp applies 544.5 lbs. per acre: weight collected (0.25 lb.) x 1 acre (43560 sq. ft.) = output (544.5 lb./ac.) area of tarp (20 sq. ft.) 5. Adjust each setting, and recalibrate until the desired delivery rate is obtained. Granular Band Spreader Calibration 1. Set applicator dial or dials to give desired delivery rate of granules suggested for band treatment according to manufacturer's instructions. 2. Fill hoppers with granules to be used. 3. Travel across field at planting speed for the distance required to cover 1/16 acre (2,722 sq. ft.) per row. Collect granules for each row in a bag, bucket, or other container. For example: granular band application for a 40-inch row requires 817 ft. to cover 1/16 acre: 1/16 acre (2,722 sq. ft.) = distance of travel (817 ft.) row width (3.33 ft.) 4. Weigh granules from each row separately, and multiply by 16 to find delivery per acre for each row.

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