The Groundsman

September 2016

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Visit for more information and digital editions TECHNICAL UPDATE 25 the Groundsman September 2016 Energised Chloroplast comes from the Greek translation chloros (green) and phyllon (leaf). Each tetraploid cell contains double the chloroplast of a diploid. The doubling of chromosomes and in particular chloroplast produces robust plants with greater stress tolerance. Thylakoids inside the chloroplast contain the light-harvesting complex, including the chlorophyll green pigments essential to photosynthesis, absorbing sunlight in energy-rich molecules. Photosynthesis converts the light energy into chemical energy, which is stored as carbohydrate and synthesised with water and carbon dioxide gas to produce energy for the plant. Oxygen is released as a waste product. The increased cellular chloroplast benefits the plant by boosting chlorophyll production for energy absorption and processing. The outcome is a high energy, robust, hardwearing, healthier plant with improved stress tolerance and recovery capability, even in cooler temperatures. Development The first stage when creating a new tetraploid cultivar is different to the Seed being grown in isolation, under cover t beginning of a new diploid. In place of the more usual clonal and poly-cross breeding, an amenity diploid cultivar with the desired characteristics is selected for its characteristics and treated with the hormone. The treatment is applied to just a few grammes of seed in their initial stages of germination prior to emergence. Seed is then multiplied in isolation to produce sufficient seed for further investigation. As with all new cultivars, the resultant progeny must conform to DUS protocols, that being distinct, uniform and stable, in order to achieve plant breeders' variety rights and registration, a pre-condition for seed certification. Initially, young plants are grown under glass for observation, and leaves and shoots have chromosome counts taken. It may take a second or third generation of the new tetraploid offspring to produce both stability and viability for seed production. Several plants from the same parent are multiplied together in isolation. The resultant seed is harvested and used for field testing in the same way as diploids. Seeds are larger and high energy, around 500 seeds per gramme compared with 650-700 per gramme for sports diploids and up to 800 seeds per gramme for ultra- dwarf super fine ryegrass. It's at this stage where potential new cultivars are pushed to the limit and vital characteristics such as growth habit, wear, disease and drought tolerance, mowing height and visual merit are assessed. Only one or two will make it through this rigorous process from the many thousands at the beginning of the process. Proven performance Tetraploid perennial ryegrass provides a host of invaluable characteristics not found in diploids. High energy seed and growth in cooler conditions from 4°C makes blends containing tetraploids such as R140 and R25 CRT perfect for transitional autumn overseeding and repairs. Superior winter wear and robust re-growth helps keep surfaces in play though the winter high-pressure period. Outcomes from the Rigby Taylor Sports Wear Trial at STRI concluded the balanced blend of tetraploid with top performing diploid perennial ryegrasses in R140 delivered superior winter wear performance compared with traditional diploid blends and mixtures. Freephone 0800 424919 Web site: e-mail: The Proven Performance Latymer Upper School "Everyone's expectations for quality playing surfaces are increasingly being raised, including of course mine and those of the school governers, let alone the players. R140 seed is definitely helping us to meet those demands. We've hosted training sessions for the Barbarians, the All Blacks and Australia and these professionals have sometimes used the pitches for up to three hours at a time. I'm glad to say the surfaces have withstood the heavy wear and tear that such sessions create. "For rugby the sward is kept at 30 mm high; 25 mm for football; and the cricket outfield is maintained at 15 mm. "Combined with a regular maintenance programme of vertidraining/aeration, R140 has established an excellent root development in terms of root depth and structure – so m uch better than we ever had," Dale adds. "In fact, if I had to make the choice again, I would go for exactly the same seed." Dale Gleed, Head Groundsman Middleborough FC Riverside Stadium "We have had excellent results using R140 at The Riverside for transitional seeding in late autumn to help maintain the surface though the difficult winter period. It works extremely well as the tetraploid ryegrasses provide excellent growth and recovery when it's needed most." Tony Bell, Head Groundsman, Middlesbrough FC Tetraploid 28% increased germination 12 days after seeding at 4°C Tetraploids emerging faster than diploids, speeding up establishment. Photo 11 days after seeding. Tetraploid Diploid Tetraploid v Diploid Cool Temperature Germination at 4°C 70 60 50 40 30 % Germination Number of Days After Seeding 12 15 20 22 12 DAS + 28% Diploid Diploid Tetraploid Tetraploid Tetraploid Tetraploid seedlings emerge faster than diploids

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