LoRaWAN® Gateways: Radio Coexistence Issues and Solutions

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LoRa Alliance ® Whitepaper Page 11 of 49 LoRaWAN ® Gateways Radio Coexistence Issues and Solutions Copyright ©2021 LoRa Alliance, Inc. All rights reserved. www.lora-alliance.org BTS LTE LoRa GW LTE BS Isolation Omnidirectional antenna Panel antenna RF cable -3dB Sensitivity -117dBm Pout = 27dBm Figure 8: Isolation between LTE and LoRa antennas. BS, base station; GW, gateway; RF, radio frequency. The measured isolation between two panel antennas has been investigated in Report ITU-R M.2244 (see [8]). The methodology used here is almost identical; correction factors are applied to the antenna gain to consider the gain variation depending on the directions. Antenna isolation can be optimized via installation parameters because both LoRa antennas and base station antennas are directive antennas. This means that the antenna gain is not identical depending on the direction. The installation can be then optimized, favoring the ideal direction to improve isolation. 3.2.1 LTE BASE STATION ANTENNAS LTE base station antennas have about 15 to 20dBi antenna maximum gain. Here is an example of an antenna pattern: Figure 9: Example of antenna gain pattern of an LTE base station

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