Security FAQ

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5177 Brandi n Court, Frem ont, CA94538 | Tel : +1 51 0 -4 9 2 -4044 | Fax : +1 510 -4 9 2 -4001 | www.l o ra -al l i anc e.org Security FAQ Is LoRaWAN compliant with the European Union Cyber Resilience Act? Annex I of the EU Cyber Resilience Act sets out the "security requirements relating to the properties of products with digital elements". This general statement includes LoRaWAN products, as LoRaWAN can be considered a 'digital element'. The security foundation provided by LoRaWAN enables development of a product that will be compliant with the requirements set out in Annex I.1.3. The use of firmware updates over- the-air enables development of a product that will be compliant with the requirements set out in Annex I.1.5. The other requirements in the Annexes are concerned with the overall security of the product and customer engagement programs put in place by the manufacturer, for example, a method by which a customer can report a vulnerability. Can a device in a LoRaWAN network be cloned or impersonated? The specific best practice of using secure device credentials comprised of properly assigned EUIs and unique root keys ensures that all LoRaWAN end-devices are individual within a LoRaWAN system. It should not be possible to obtain the root key from the end-device itself; for example, it should not be printed on the end- device or accompanying documentation. These measures prevent cloning or impersonating a LoRaWAN end- device in a LoRaWAN system. What key does LoRaWAN use? A LoRaWAN end-device has secure device credentials, which include a 128-bit AES AppKey and an EUI (Extended Unique Identifier) based on an OUI (Organizationally Unique Identifier) assigned by the IEEE Registration Authority. These are used to derive two unique 128-bit AES keys, the Network Session Key (NwkSKey) and the Application Session Key (AppSKey). This occurs when the end-device joins the LoRaWAN network and interacts with the Join Server. The NwkSKey is shared with the Network Server and the AppSKey is shared with the Application Server used by the LoRaWAN end-device. Why is 128-bit AES used instead of 256-bit AES? NIST provides recommendations on security strength time frames in Table 4 of the NIST Special Publication 800-57 Part 1 Revision 5 (published May 2020). This table indicates that a security strength of 128, which is equivalent for 128-bit AES symmetric key modes of operation, is "acceptable" for "applying protection and processing information that is already protected" "through 2030" and "2031 and beyond". Therefore, there is no

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